A Brain-Computer interface (BCI) is a direct communication between the users brain and an external device. BCI can be either invasive in the form of electrodes implanted directly on the brain or non-invasive through an external system that “reads” brain activity by measuring signals that travel through the user’s skull and are then translated into commands that external hardware and software executes.
BCI can be used for a wide variety of tasks such as brain biofeedback, control of prosthetics and computer assisted communication tools for people with physical and intellectual disabilities. BCI is also being increasingly used in military, sports and commercial roles and there is a significant interest in BCI-based gaming and VR.
Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general.
Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas.